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by Gerard Foekema
Publisher: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Price (INR):Rs 2000.00
Price (USD): $ 50.00
This book gives a detailed analysis of architectural designs found in Indian temples built in Karnataka in the period 1000-1300 AD. and a view on the architectural features common to all sophisticated temples built in medieval India. Indian temples are decorated with architecture in an ingenious way not found elsewhere in the world and in medieval Karnataka that special use of architecture reached a climax. Both text and illustrations are a complete and unabridged publication of a Ph.D. thesis submitted at Leiden University (Leiden, The Netherlands) in 2003.
Indian Temples are decorated with architectural components - The shrines of the temples are selected for this study - Later medieval Karnataka temples are of special interest Many unpublished temples are included in this study hut ideas on temples arc the main subject -A religious interpretation of architectural details is not presented.
1. THE EARLIEST TEMPLES IN KARNATAKA :
The First Temples Deserve Very Careful Examination - The Small Temple in Front of Ravana-phadi in Aivalli has an Imitated Attic Storey - The Meguti-temple in Aivalli has Walls that Imitate a Number of Shrines in a Row - The Bananti-gudi in Mahakut and the Upper Half of the Upper Siva-alaya in Badami Imitate Three Storeys - The Articulation of the Lower Half - The Articulation of the Lower Siva-alaya - The Bhutanatha Temple as an early Example of a Complete and Typical Architectural Articulation - The Malegilti Siva-alaya - Examples in Mahakut -Examples in Pattadkal - A Different Kind of early Temples in Mahakut and Aivalli Identification of a Second Way of Architectural Articulation of Shrines - The Two Articulations have a Contrasting Look but Share Several Principles.
2. OLD TEXTS ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF SHRINES :
A Survey of Published Texts - Temple Inscriptions in Sudi, Itagi and Ablur Praise the Complexity and the Size of Shrines and Compare them with Mountains - An Inscription in Kubaturu Mentions Decoration with Complex Wall-projections and with three Different Kinds of Shrine - A short Inscription in Holalu Mentions four Kinds of Shrine - The Manasara Deals with One Kind of Shrine, the Traditional Southern One - The Illustrations of Ram Raz Show Post Medieval Southern Examples Detailed Comparison of the Chapters XVIII XX as Translated by Acharya with Actual Old Southern Shrines - Very Probably only the Architects and Craftsmen were Familiar with the Architectural Details of Temples.
3. THE APPROACH OF EARLIER AUTHORS :
The Typology of Indian Temples by Fergusson - Rea and Cousens Contributed Mainly Illustrations - Jouveau Dubreuil Presented a Detailed Description of a Dravida Elevation - Coomaraswamy noted the two-storeyed Character of Hut-like Structures - Stella Kramrisch Noted Ornamental Buttresses and Multiplication of Sikharas Michell Tried to Describe Shrines without any Interpretation of Architectural Details -Hardy Interpreted their Architectural Details - Sinha Tried to Find a Symbolic Meaning of Architectural Details Meister and Dhaky Described Temples in a Neutral Way.
4. PROPOSALS FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION OF INDIAN SHRINES :
The Architectural Concept of Shrines Shows Little Variation, but their Architectural Decoration Shows much Variation - Proposal to Describe Indian Shrines in three Steps : Architectural Concept, Architectural Articulation, other Decorations - The Interpretation of the Architectural Articulation should be the Basis for the Choice of Terms for Descriptions - Introduction of the Term Aedicule - In southern Architectural Articulations a Pedestal, Storeys and Talas Should be Distinguished - The Naming of the Components of the Southern Architectural Articulation - Proposal of a Descriptive Formula for Southern Shrines - In Northern Architectural Articulations a Pedestal, Embedded Pillars and Roof-Towers should be Distinguished - Distinction of Two kinds of Plan, Square and Stepped/Stellate - Proposals for the Naming of the Components of the Northern Architectural Articulations - The Decorations Added-on to the Architectural Articulation often Include Miniature Architecture - Description of the Badami Malegitti Siva-alaya as an Example.
5. NORTHERN KARNATAKA, 11TH CENTURY :
The Covering of Surviving Temples by Archaeological Publications - Comparison between the Large Sandstone temples in Pattadkal with the Sandstone Temples in Sudi and Kuknur - Identification and Discussion of the Elements of Architectural Articulation New in the 11th Century - Annigeri Selected as a Large and Typical Example Made of Potstone - Exotic Variations in Lakkundi - Stellate Variations in Savadi, Konnur and Hire Singangutti - Stepped-diamond Variations in Basavana Bagevadi and Devur.
6. NORTHERN KARNATAKA, 12TH-13TH CENTURY :
Discussion of Itagi and Haven as Examples Typical of the 12th Century Huvvinahadagalli Kallesvara Built in Two Steps, One Step Typical of the 12th Century, and the other Typical of the 12th Century - Discussion of Chavudayyadanapura and Tilavalli as Typical Examples of the 13th century - The Complicated Architectural Articulation of Lakshmeshvar Somesvara - The Complicated Miniatures in Hirehadagalli - The Stellate Shrine in Dambal The Nagara Temples with Stepped-diamond Shrines in Hangal, Amargol and Itagi - The Nagara Temples with Square Shrines in Multagi and Degaon.
7. THE KALYANA REGION, 12LH CENTURY :
Characteristic Stellate Shrines Survive only on the other Side of the Border with Maharashtra - Chattarki near Bijapur the most Southern Example with Stepped Plan and Large Wall-images - Other Stepped-diamond Examples in Kadlewad and Kalgi - Square Examples in Narayanpur, Jalsingi and Kalgi - Comparison with Temples in Ambarnathu and Lonar.
8. SOUTHERN KARNATAKA, 12th CENTURY :
Two Royal Temples Dominate all Others - The Large Temple in Belur Imitates the Contemporary Temples in the Kalyana Region - A Challenge of the Hoysala King of his Overlord - Belur and Kalgi Compared Three more Hoysala Nagara Temples in Nagamangala, Turuvekere and Nuggihalli - The Simple Sankaresvara-Temple in Belur - Halebid was also Inspired by Temples of the Kalyana Region - Traditional Architectural Articulation Partly Abandoned - Comparison between Earlier Temples in Kadabahalli and Shravan Belgola with 12th-century temples in Koravangala and Mosale - An Enigmatic Pair of Icons.
9. SOUTHERN KARNATAKA, 13LH CENTURY :
Temples in Nuggihalli, Hosaholalu and Somanathapur are examples of a new Kind of Temples Imitating Halebid - Many 16-Interruptcd Stellate Plans have only Three Projections per Side - Uninterrupted Stellate Shrines - Examples of Non-ornate Stellate Shrines - Stellate Shrines with Two or More Different Kinds of Star-point.
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